Four PANORAMIX papers were accepted at this year’s ACM Conference on Computer and Communications Security (CCS).
Two papers were presented at the pre-conference workshop WPES: 16th Workshop on Privacy in the Electronic Society (WPES 2017).
“Mix-ORAM: Using delegate shuffles” Raphael R. Toledo, George Danezis, Isao Echizen
Abstract: Oblivious RAM (ORAM) is a key technology for providing private storage and querying on untrusted machines but is commonly seen as impractical due to the high overhead of the re-randomization, called the eviction, the client incurs. We propose in this work to securely delegate the eviction to semi-trusted third parties to enable any client to accede the ORAM technology and present four different designs inspired by mix-net technologies with reasonable periodic costs.
“AnNotify: A Private Notification Service” Ania Piotrowska, Jamie Hayes, Nethanel Gelernter, George Danezis and Amir Herzberg.
Abstract: AnNotify is a scalable service for private, timely and low-cost on-line notifications, based on anonymous communication, sharding, dummy queries, and Bloom filters. We present the design and analysis of AnNotify, as well as an evaluation of its costs. We outline the design of AnNotify and calculate the concrete advantage of an adversary observing multiple queries. We present a number of extensions, such as generic presence and broadcast notifications, and applications, including notifications for incoming messages in anonymous communications, updates to private cached web and Domain Name Service (DNS) queries.
And two papers were presented at the main ACM CCS conference, one of which “How Unique is Your onion?” was selected as a paper award finalist!
“How Unique is Your .onion? An Analysis of the Fingerprintability of Tor Onion Services” Rebekah Overdorf, Marc Juarez, Gunes Acar, Rachel Greenstadt and Claudia Diaz
Abstract: Recent studies have shown that Tor onion (hidden) service websites are particularly vulnerable to website fingerprinting attacks due to their limited number and sensitive nature. In this work we present a multi-level feature analysis of onion site fingerprintability, considering three state-of-the-art website fingerprinting methods and 482 Tor onion services, making this the largest analysis of this kind completed on onion services to date.
Prior studies typically report average performance results for a given website fingerprinting method or countermeasure. We investigate which sites are more or less vulnerable to fingerprinting and which features make them so. We find that there is a high variability in the rate at which sites are classified (and misclassified) by these attacks, implying that average performance figures may not be informative of the risks that website fingerprinting attacks pose to particular sites.
We analyze the features exploited by the different website fingerprinting methods and discuss what makes onion service sites more or less easily identifiable, both in terms of their traffic traces as well as their webpage design. We study misclassifications to understand how onion services sites can be redesigned to be less vulnerable to website fingerprinting attacks. Our results also inform the design of website fingerprinting countermeasures and their evaluation considering disparate impact across sites.
For further information on this paper have a look at its artifact page.
“A Touch of Evil: High-Assurance Cryptographic Hardware from Untrusted Components” Vasilios Mavroudis, Andrea Cerulli, Petr Svenda, Dan Cvrcek, Dusan Klinec, George Danezis
Abstract: The semiconductor industry is fully globalized and integrated circuits (ICs) are commonly defined, designed and fabricated in different premises across the world. This reduces production costs, but also exposes ICs to supply chain attacks, where insiders introduce malicious circuitry into the final products. Additionally, despite extensive post-fabrication testing, it is not uncommon for ICs with subtle fabrication errors to make it into production systems. While many systems may be able to tolerate a few byzantine components, this is not the case for cryptographic hardware, storing and computing on confidential data. For this reason, many error and backdoor detection techniques have been proposed over the years. So far all attempts have been either quickly circumvented, or come with unrealistically high manufacturing costs and complexity.
This paper proposes Myst, a practical high-assurance architecture, that uses commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) hardware, and provides strong security guarantees, even in the presence of multiple malicious or faulty components. The key idea is to combine protective-redundancy with modern threshold cryptographic tech- niques to build a system tolerant to hardware trojans and errors. To evaluate our design, we build a Hardware Security Module that provides the highest level of assurance possible with COTS components. Specifically, we employ more than a hundred COTS secure cryptocoprocessors, verified to FIPS140-2 Level 4 tamper-resistance standards, and use them to realize high-confidentiality random number generation, key derivation, public key decryption and signing. Our experiments show a reasonable computational overhead (less than 1% for both Decryption and Signing) and an exponential increase in backdoor-tolerance as more ICs are added.
For further information on Cryptographic Hardware from Untrusted Components see the accompanying website and this illustrative video: